.. 1095 – At the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade, declaring holy war against the Muslims who had occupied the Holy Land, beginning the first of at least nine Crusades. “The Crusades were fought mainly against Muslims, although campaigns were also waged against pagan Slavs, Jews, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Mongols, Cathars, Hussites, Waldensians, Old Prussians, and political enemies of the popes.”
.. 1895 – Swedish chemist and industrialist Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament, setting aside the bulk of his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after his death. The awards for the sciences – physics, chemistry and physiology or medicine – remain widely considered to be the more prestigious award one can receive in those fields.
.. 1978 – Assassination of San Francisco Supervisor Harvey Milk, “the first openly gay man elected to any substantial political office in the history of the planet.” The killing was regarded by many as a hate crime.
.. 2009 – First day of Eid al-Adha, the Muslim celebration of one man’s willingness to kill his son for no other reason than his God told him to.